A dynamic team of scientists has been assembled to complement more experienced people. Researchers at CML have over 60 years of combined experience in carbon and graphite materials and catalysis. Terry Baker, PhD, DSc, Vice-President for Research and Development has over twenty five years of industrial experience both the Atomic Energy Authority (Harwell, UK) as well as a the Corporate Research Laboratories at Exxon Research and Engineering Company. This has been coupled with 15 years of academic experience. Terry Baker is undoubtedly the pioneer of carbon nanomaterials research. His extraordinary in-situ TEM studies of carbon formation have been the base for the clear understanding of the phenomenon. He has been the recipient of the numerous awards including; George E. Graffin Lecturer, American Carbon Society, 1985; Charles E. Pettinos Award, American Carbon Society, 1987; The TMS Society 1993; Pittsburgh and New York Catalysis Society Award. He is a Fellow of the American Carbon Society. Author over two hundred and fifty publications, many in the area of carbon nanostructures, has given numerous plenary lectures and organized various scientific meetings. He has been been awarded over fifty patents in the fields of carbon nanotechnology and catalysis. He is the editor of the following books: Novel Materials in Heterogeneous Catalysis, ACS Symposium Series (1990); Carbon Fiber Filaments and Composites, ASI NATO Series (1990); Metal Support Interactions, ACS Symposium Series (1987); Strong Metal Support Interactions , ACS Symposium Series (1986); Catalytic Materials, Relationship Between Structure and Reactivity, ACS Symposium Series (1984); Coke Formation on Metal Surfaces, ACS Symposium Series, (1982). (e-mail)
Design and engineering of carbon nanostructures has required the understanding of the interfacial phenomena at carbon surfaces as well as control over the morphological characteristics of metal catalyst particles. These parameters have been elucidated from dynamic studies performed by in-situ TEM
Mechanism of Carbon Nanostructure Growth
The mechanism for the formation of both graphite nanofibers and carbon nanotubes was established from in-situ TEM studies (Baker et. al. (1972) J. Catal 26, 51). Three steps are involved: 1. decomposition of carbon-containing gas at certain metal faces; 2. diffusion of carbon species through the particle; 3. precipitation of graphite at other metal faces. Diffusion of carbon is the rate determining step.